Sunday, August 5, 2007

The Dawn of a New Era..

Salve to everyone and anyone who checks the Latin blog during the summer (namely no one). As some of you may know, the 2007-2008 AP Latin curriculum will not longer be based on the Aenied (tragic but true). I'm still waiting to hear if it will indeed be Cicero or the usual Catullus/Ovid. I'm quite sure both will be full of the exciting Latin fun we have all come to expect from Mr. O'Donnell. Because of the change in course materials some redecorating will be necessary, but more importantly we will need NEW BLOG ADMINS. Yes you heard me! Unfortunatley your old beloved admins will not be taking Latin this year :(. So the new job openings mean I will need devoted Latin scholars to carry on the torch. Volunteers would be lovely, however I am not adverse to seeking out Minerva and having her track down individuals, pin them upon a sharp rock in the middle of a whirlpool while making them scream fire with one of Jupiters thunderbolts (one of my favorite Aenied refs by the way). Or of course the serpent option is always open. Oh you know, just like Lacoon and his sons, tracked down and brutally murdered by a pair of red eyed vicious snakes. Boy oh boy does Latin make life fun :). Ten points to those of you who actually understood those references. So yes, if anyone does happen to read this over the summer and is intrested in controlling one of the coolest things on the web, feel free to contact me via the options in my profile or drop a comment. Well happy summer and Vale!

P.S. The 2007 Latin trip was AMAZING and I suggest it to any future Latin students. Not only did it bring Latin literature to life, it gave us a chance to finally BE in the places all videos showed us, provided a new cultural perspective, and made us that much more excited to learn more Latin!

Sunday, June 10, 2007

Final VJs of the Year...

As you all know we are supposed to answer 2/8 of the questions...if you want the questions re-worded an posted please let us know!

Thursday, May 31, 2007

Quizzzzz linesssss 693~ 705

I'm bored. I think I will make myself less bored by posting the quiz lines.
Now I'm even more bored.

Then all mighty Juno, pitying (Dido's) long grief and painful death,

sent down Iris from Olympus so she would free the struggling soul

fastened limbs. Because truly she was dying by neither a deserved fate

nor the death(she earned), but miserable before her day, inflamed by

sudden madness, not yet Persepona had taken the yellow hair from

(Dido's) head and had condemmed her head to Stygian Orcus(underworld)

Then Iris, on yellow and dewy wings, flies down through the sky, leading

a thousand different lights from the sun and stood above (Dido's) head.

"This offering sacres to Dis(Pluto), I bear as order and free you from

your body." Tus she says and cuts the hair with her right hand,

all the warmth departs at once and the life withdrew in the wind.


Expect some errors. I did this in 5 minutes.

Tuesday, May 22, 2007

Congrats AP Test Takers/What now?

Yay! You guys did it! We've all worked hard all year, and I'm sure it paid off for those of you who took the AP test. Any comments, feelings, suggestions, etc? Feel free to post them here (and maybe give some suggestions to future AP test takers).

So now you know the Aenied front to back, can recite the scenes in REVERSE order, name EVERY poetic device used in EACH scene, AND can act out ALL of Juno's speeches... in LATIN (Well maybe not EVERYONE... but hey there are always things to strive for right?), so now what you may ask? Well for starters, school is not done yet! Let me repeat that, we still have class! You know, that room we go to everyday and talk about latin and important life lessons - like what you can duct tape to your thigh. So for all you latin starved students who feel they have lost meaning in their life now the AP test is over here are a few ideas... More suggestions welcome!

1. Pay attention/go to class: there are tons of nifty things that go on... need I say more?

2. Memorize a latin passage: not only will you impress guys/girls you can offically place youself in the "Latin nerd club"

3. Latin Artwork: this one is for all you artists out there! Make something cool to add to the walls

4. Offical Latin Gear (T-shirts,sweatshirts, whatever): We've been talking about this all year!!! How bout actually doing it now?

5. Make your own Latin Movie: The Aeneid needs to be recorded in cinematic history, are you going to be the one to do it? (At Hajir's request)

6. Read the Aenied: If you were one of those people who never actually read the Aenied, now is the time... better late than never, I suppose. Maybe everything will finally make sense?

7. Become an expert on some random Latin thing: seemingly random information always can come in handy, plus nothing declares Latin fanaticism better than a 20 min rant on Pompeiian fish sauce

8. Find ways to infuse Latin phrases/comparisons/Davey quotes into everyday life: Not only will you get strange looks, but most people will have no clue what your talking about!

9. Become fluent in Latin: same as above... but now you can talk with the POPE!

10. Proudly display Latin Stuff in every one of your other classes: You know that vocab your supposed to do? Rip it up in front of the teacher and say, "I don't need this I have Latin!" Make sure to have a latin book clearly displayed on your desk at ALL TIMES and be throughly engaged in it while your other teachers are lecturing. Ya, and make sure to have STACKS of Latin stuff that you just drag around all day and work on in every class. ;)

11-infinity. Any other ideas you have! From stuffing fortune cookies with quotes/phrases (Dr. O or Latin based), to trying to actually build the Trojan horse, the possibilities are endless! Enjoy and feel free to contribute your own ideas!

Once again congrats to the APers and a merry last 4 weeks to all!

Monday, May 7, 2007

Vergil Journal 11: Fitzgerald...Books VIII and IX

Book 8:

1) What is Tiberinus' message to a sleeping Aeneas?

2) How does Evander greet Aeneas, what are his reasons, and why is this surprising?

3) Why all the Hercules talk?

4) Notice how important the Tiber and farming are in the descriptions.

5) How does Venus get involved?

6) Pay special attention to Evander's goodbye to Pallas starting on 760.

7) Itemize the incidents portrayed on the shield, starting on 860...you need no other histories of Rome. What is Aeneas' reaction to all this?

Book 9:

1) Juno meddles, what does she urge Turnus to do? Why now?

2) Nisus and Euryalus get involved again, what do they propose?

3) Check out Ascanius' speech 360ff., what's he proposing? Is he a "man" yet?

4) Describe the two men's mission, are they successful? What leads to their demise? Remember the race. Describe 660's ghastly sight.

5) Turnus enjoys some successdescrie the tone of any of his 'rousing' speeches.

6) What act rings Ascanius closer to manhood?

7) See 1031: "Achilles has been found again, and here" who said it & what's the point?

8) How does Turnus escape at the very end of this book?

Thursday, May 3, 2007

Quiz lines: 830~840 and 887~888

"You are one sister of Jove and child of Saturn.

You roll so great waves of anger under your heart.

But go and let down the raging undertaking in vain.

I give you power (he will grant Juno's wish), and I yield, rolling conquered.

Ausonians will hold their fatherly speech and things,

so will be the name; Teucrians will give away, mingled in so many bodies.

I shall add the sacred rights and make them all Latins with one language.

From this, a race from Ausonian bloode shall rise,

you will see them to go over men and over dogs in faith.

nor will and race celebreate you with equal honor."



Aeneas presses against and shakes the great tree-like spear (arboreum --> telum)

and says thus with cruel heart:

There could be some $hitty mistakes. Sorry, but I didn't want to put more than 5 minutes on this.

Sunday, April 29, 2007

Vergil Journal 10: Book VI + VII ?'s

Book VI ?'s

1) What is the role of Deiphobe in this book?

2) What about Misenus?

3) Talk briefly about those who are on the jaws of Orcus, 376 ff.

4) Comment on Charon's role and appearance.

5) Recap the Dido/Aeneas episode in this book. Whose side do you take, why?

6) Talk about a few of the punishments described from 753-839.

7) Describe the Deiphobus episode. Who is the main culprit?

8) Talk about the Romans foretold to Aeneas, which we did not translate. 1084-1155.

Book VII ?'s

1) Briefly describe Latinus and his family situation.

2) What has the soothsayer told about his daughter's situation?

3) The tables omen...who interprets it and what does it mean for the Trojans?

4) What were the Latins doing when Ilionesus's assembly arrives? What is the purpose of Ilioneus' assembly?

5) What is Latinus' reply to the envoys?

6) Comment on Juno's speech, 398-441.

7) What does Allecto do?

8) Silvia's stag is the saddest incident, what is its role here?

9) What is the custom with the gates of war?

10) Briefly comment on the various allies of Turnus. In your opinion who is the most interesting?

Saturday, April 28, 2007

The Third Quiz lines: Book X 420~428

I just translated 162 lines of Latin today... I'm going out of my mind...

Now I'm about to translate another 8 lines... damn that seems tiny now lol

So Pallas seeks him(Halaesus), first prayed(perfect participle) thus:

"Grant now, father Tiber, to the sword, which(accusative) I balance to be able to be thrown,

(grant) a fortunate way through the chest of Halaesus.

Your oak tree(quercus) will have arms and spoil of the man(Halaesus)."

The god heard these(prayer - accusative plural); then Halaesus covered Imaon,

the unlucky man(Halaesus) gives his unprotected chest to the spear.

But Lausus, a great part of the war, did not allow(non sinit) his army line(agmina)

to be frightened thoroughly by the man's slaughter.

First, he kills opposing Abbas, the knot and the barrier of the war.


Damn that took me way too long because of the little side notes. I don't know why I just spent 20 minutes doing this, but have fun in Latin anyways.

Vale, quisques es.

Thursday, April 19, 2007

Lines 450~460: Second Quiz lines

Behold me, those whiners talking cr@p at this blog for being late. Unless you are posting these lines, be happy at the fact that someone's doing this.

Among them, Phoenician Dido, still fresh with wound, was wandering in the great forest.

The Trojan hero, as soon as he stopped (or halted) close ((implied) to her), recognized

the obscure (Dido) through the shadoes. Such as he, in the first of the month, who sees or

thinks to have seen the moon rise through the clouds. He drops tears and addressed her

with sweet love: "Unlucky Dido, then truly the messenger had come to me and and bear that

you followed the very end with the steel (sword)? Was I, alas, the cause of your death? I swear

by the stars and by the gods and if there is any faith under this ground, unwillingly, queen, I left

from your shores.


Two extra lines:

Cerberus haec ingens latratu regna trifauci

personat, adverso recubans immanis in antro.

Huge Cerberus (3-headed hellhound) in this kingdom resounds barking with three throats,

Monstrous (body) reclining to the opposite side in a cave



Text for the extra lines taken from the Loeb, not the translation. I referenced the Loeb for the translation, but I checked each words with dictionary for precision. Not that this is up before 10 PM, I want to see some happy whiners after the quiz praising this holy blog. Have fun with Latin, everyone.

"Search not for your desire in this world, but the source of your happiness."
- Guess Who?

Friday, April 13, 2007

Quiz- Book VI: Lines 24-36 (First Quiz of the Last Term!)

Some quiz lines...and Karen and Mia must admit that this lines were rather cumbersome, so bear with us as we attempt accurately translate at this hour...

24 In this (panel...remember they are looking at another door) the cruel love of the bull and Pasiphae is placed under(neath) by theft/fraud,
25 (particularly confusing) the Minotaur is the race (that was) mixed and the two-formed offspring,
26 the reminders/memorials of an unspeakable Venus (love),
27 here that labor of the house- that inextricable maze (referring to the Minotaur's labyrinth)
28 Daedalus also depicted the great love of the queen having taken pity on it (we did this way differently in class but after looking at the cases we think this makes more sense)
29 he freed the tricks of the house and its winding (passage)/ambiguity guiding blind footsteps with string (same as above applies here).
30-31 You also, Icarus, would've had a great part in such a great work if pain allowed it (same as above again).
32 Having tried twice to depict the downfall (of Icarus) in gold,
33 twice the father's (Daedalus) hands fell. In fact constantly
34 they (Aeneas and peeps?) would look over everything with their eyes, unless returned Achates was present (?)
35 and together with the priestess of Phoebe and Hecate, Deiphobe (daughter) of Glaucus, said these things to the king (Aeneas)

Wednesday, April 11, 2007

Vergil Journal 9: Book V ?'s


(the cool pic from our book!)^^

So these are the "questions" just in case you've forgotten them or what not...

1) Summarize the opening scene, why and how to honor Anchinses? (from Fitzgerald)

2) The games are interesting. Briefly describe each event. Which is the weirdest, in your opinion and why? They all are either pretty strange, or have strange resolutions.

3) The women get riled up, describe what they do, and who puts an end to their ploy (ploy is such a cool word). Pay particular attention to Ascanius' activity. He is taking a leadership role for once... :)

4) Comment on the Palinurus episode, did anyone see this coming (a Davy rhetorical ?)?

5) Bonus, what Cambridge reading (s) was/were obviously modeled on the book? (we pretty much already answered this...)

Wednesday, March 28, 2007

Thursday April 5th....

Anyone up for a Spring break class...Let's meet on Thursday April 5th at 3pm in C-5....go Royals..mRo

Friday, March 23, 2007

Quiz- Book IV: Lines 351-361 and 571-573 (As Promised)


(Aeneas and Dido in their cave of amor) <3

So here's a translation for the quiz lines...

And a side note about last week...I (Mia) made this thingy with cases and translations of every word, but both Karen and I somehow couldn't post it as an image...so that was a bummer.

Instead, this week, I did the thing but with only cases above each word, and I promise I'll print it out and put it next to our web address in case anyone has any questions (because we all need good grades for our last quiz of the TERM!!!) :D

Translation of the lines we've seen:

351 The ghost of my father Anchises (who died in Book III) how many times in the moist shadows does the
night open up lands to me
352 how many times do the flaming stars rise,
353 the image of my father Anchises admonishes me in dreams/sleep, and his turbid image terrifies me;
354 (the thought of) my son Ascanius (urges me on) and the danger to his beloved head (life - metonymy)
355 whom (Ascanius) I (Aeneas) am depriving of the kingdom of Hesperia and his fated fields
356 for now the interpreter of the gods (Mercury) sent down by Jupiter himself
357 (I swear by both heads - Jupiter and Mercury OR Aeneas and someone else) brought commands through the quick air:
358 I myself have seen the god in manifest/clear light
359 entering the walls and I have drunk in his voice with these ears.
360 Stop burning me and yourself up with your burning complaints
361 I do not follow (to) Italy of my own accord.

(^^Aeneas is saying: I’m doing what I have to do, not what I want to do!)

Attempted translation of the stuff we haven't seen:

571 Then truly Aeneas having been terrified by the sudden ghost/shadow (of Mercury)
572 tears/seizes (his) body from sleep and harasses (his) peeps/comrades:
573 Wake headlong, peeps/comrades, and settle/man the benches/crossbeam

Sunday, March 18, 2007

Thursday, March 15, 2007

Quiz- Book IV: Lines 279-286 (Can You Believe This Is Up A Whole Day EARLY!)

Well, I've (we've) blown off all my (our) other homework just to get this up for kids a whole DAY early (well technically not a day, but whatever)!

This time I (Mia) decided to do this thing that is kinda psycho and time-consuming instead of line-by-line notes...but it really helps one to easily identify vocabulary, cases, etc.

As always, enjoy! (and you're welcome) ;)

Translation:
279 And truly Aeneas mad/frenzied stood speechless at the sight,
280 and his hair having stood on end in horror and his voice is choked/halted by his throat.
281 he is eager/burns to depart in flight and to abandon these sweet lands,
282 having been astounded by such a warning and the by the commandment of the gods.
283 Alas, what can/would he do? By what statement/speech would he dare to approach the frenzied (by love) queen (namely Dido)?
284 What first beginning could/would he take?
285 And yet he divides his mind, now here quickly, now there
286 he takes into various parts and turns (his mind) through all things.

Saturday, March 10, 2007

Friday, March 9, 2007

Quiz Book IV: Lines 24-30, 331-332

Well, this is not the usual "Mia Pro Translation" so just bear with me... I tried. Also, sorry this is up so late/early!

24 sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat

25 vel pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras
26 pallentis umbras Erebo noctemque profundam
27 ante pudor quam te violo aut tua iura resoluo
28 ille meos primus qui me sibi iunxit amores
29 abstulit ille habeat secum seruetque sepulcro
30 sic effata sinum lacrimis impleuit obortis

331 dixerat ille Iouis monitis immota tenebat
332 lumina et obnixus curam sub corde pre

Translation:
24 "But I would wish first that either the lowest (depths of the) earth should yawn/open up for me,
25 or the almighty father (Jupiter) might blast me with a thunderbolt to the underworld/hell-
26 the pale ghosts/shades and dark/profound/deep night in Erebus-
27 before, Shame/Modesty, I violate you or break your laws.
28 That man(Sycchaeus) who first joined me to himself took away my loves;
29 may he keep/have them(my loves) with him, and guard them in the grave."
30 Having spoke, she(Dido) filled her bosom/breast with upwelling tears

331 She(Dido) had said (aka She stopped). He(Aeneas) by the command of Jupiter was holding his eyes unwavering
332 and having struggled he was (re)pressing/crushing the care/pain in his heart.

Notes:

24 vel... vel = either...or; tellus ima= nom sub. of dehiscat, "lowest (understood -> depths of the) earth"; optem= subjuntive "I would choose"; dehiscat = subjunctive "might yawn open", substantive clause (used to express wish) of optem, mihi=dative

25 pater omnipotens = nom "almighty father" (aka Jupiter); adigat=subjunctive "might drive", subst of optem; me= direct obj. of adigat; flumine=abl; umbras=acc; namely the underworld

26 Erebo=abl "in Erebus (underworld)"; pallentes modifies umbras=acc; profundam modifies noctem=acc

27 pudor=vocative; te=object of violo; (tua) iura=object of resoluo

28 Ille=nom "that man/he" (Sycchaeus, her dead husband); qui=nom sub. of iunxit; me=acc obj. of iunxit, sibi=dative "to himself"; (meos) amores = acc object of abstulit (line 29)

29 habeat= subjuntive "may he have/keep (them->understood meos amores)"; servet(que)= subjuntive "and may he guard (them->understood meos amores)"; sepulcro=abl

30 effata= perfect participle "having spoken"; sinum= acc obj of implevit "bosom"; lacrima=abl; implevit's understood subject=Dido; obortis describes the lacrima "welling up"; as described in class the "filling of her breast with tears" can be either figurative or literal. Dido may be figuratively welling up with emotion, or literally crying so that her tears drip down.

331 dixerat= pluperfect, subj ->Understood Dido, can be thought of "she had said" like "she had finished (saying)" or "she ceased"; Ille= nom understood Aeneas, subj of tenebat; Iovis=gen; tenebat takes the abl monitis "by the command", immota modifies the lumina (line 332); (immota) lumina = acc, aka "unwavering eyes", basically saying Aeneas was not expressing any emotion and holding her gaze(?).

332 obnixus= nom perfect passive participle "having struggled", curam=acc obj of premebat, corte= abl, sub corte --> under his heart/soul, deep within his heart/soul

Friday, March 2, 2007

Vergil Journal 6: AP Question

This week's Vergil Journal is an actual AP question, and just in case you don't have the paper here it is:

(Suggested time - 10 Mins)

(A) Laocoon ardens summa decurrit ab arce,
et procul "O miseri, quae tanta insania, cives?
Creditis avectos hostes? Aut ulla putatis
dona carere dolis Danaum? Sic notus Ulixes?"

(B) Tunc etaim fatis aperit Cassandra futuris,
ora dei iussu non umquam credita Teurcis.

The characters described in the passages above both have the gift of prophecy but they both suffer because of it.

1. (a) How do they suffer?
(b) How are their prophetic gifts related to their deaths?

2. (a) Discuss how Laocoon in passage A characterizes the Greeks through his specific mention of Ulysses (Ulixes, line 4). Refer specifically to the Latin to support your answer.
(b) To what event in Book 2 does dona (line 4, passage A) refer?

Feel free to attach your answers/journals as comments to this post :)

Quiz- Book II: Lines 483-495 (Hopefully These Are The Right Lines)


Another literal translation for our March 2nd quiz (we honestly work too hard for you kids)! Oh and please note that when there's a "/", it means there are multiple definitions for a word that may work...kinda (trying to make the meaning of the word make more sense, in essence).

483 The house inside/within appears and long hallways lie open;
484 the inner rooms of Priam (meaning the house/palace of Priam) and of the ancient kings appear,
485 and they see armed men standing on the first threshold.
486 But the interior of the house was filled with groaning and miserable confusion/uproar,
487 and deep inside the hollow hall ways howl with/because of the shrieking of women;
488 the uproar stikes the golden stars.
489 Then the terrified mothers wander (aimlessly) in the huge house
490 and they hold on to the posts/doors having embraced (them, namely the doors) and they fix kisses (on the doors)
491 Pyrrhus presses on with the power/force of his father; Not the locks nor the guards themselves
492 are strong enough to withstand; the door wavers because of a frequent (battering) ram,
493 and the posts/doors removed fall from the hinges.
494 A road is made by force; The Greeks break down the doors and having been let in they murder
495 the first men they meet and they fill the place with soldiers.

Notes on the text:

483: domus (described by intus...inside) = subj. of apparet; atria (w/ adjective longa) = subject of patescunt
484: look at apparet and apparent and recognize the ANAPHORA/ASYNDETON!; subject of apparent = penatralia; the penatrialia are take 2 genitives --> Priami (standing for Priam's palace/house), and regum (described by veterum, meaning altogether, "of the ancient kings)
485: the armatosque probably stands for the Trojans protecting Priam and his family (the Teucros); therefore, the subject of vident is most likely the Greeks (Danai, mentioned later); yet the armed men standing on the threshold could also be the Greeks w/ Pyrrhus; stantes modifies the armatosque
486: subject of miscetur = interior (nom, taking the genitive domus to mean "the interior of the house"); miscetur takes 2 ablatives: gemitu and (miseroque) tumultu
487: cavae describes the aedes; penitus = deep inside; plangoribus describes the femineis (both are ablative)
488: here, the stars reflect the burning city; aurea describes the sidera (both are acc.); subject of ferit = clamor (nom)
489: pavidae describes the matres; ingentibus describes the tectis (OMG LYKE INTERLOCKING WORD ORDER!1111! :D --> ABAB); ingentubius and tectis are both ablative; subject of errant = matres
490: the amplexaeque modifies the matres; subject of tenent = matres; obj. of tenent = postes; subject of figunt = the women, object = oscula
491: Pyrrhus's father = Achilles; subjects of valent = claustra and custodes, object = sufferre
492: the literal translation of this is shown above, but the whole battering ram thing, when cleaned up, is more like ye: with the repeated blows of the battering ram (yes, the crebro and ariete are both ablative); ianua = subj. of labat (wavers)
493: emoti modifies the postes; postes = subj. of procumbunt
494: the three word sentence is awesome; vi = ablative (like the other vi); subj. of rumpunt = Danai (the Greeeeeks), object = aditus; subj. of trucidant = the Danai again; immissi modifies the Danai
495: object of trucidant = the promosque; Greeks subj. of complent, object = loc; milite = ablative


Note: a HUGE apology from me to first period for not having this up by 2-3 a.m...

Aenied Character/Place List I

Major props to Reid who sent me this list... You're awesome! So, basically this is a list of names of people, places, and things we have encountered so far. I added the website these came from to our Interesting Websites under "Aeneid Character List" So check it out if you want it in a more readable and printer friendly format.

People
Greeks
The Greeks: Homer used many names for the Greeks in the Iliad, and Virgil copies him. You will find the Greeks called Danaans, Achaeans, Argives, Dolopians, Dorians indiscriminately.

Achilles
: the greatest of the Greek warriors at Troy. His quarrel with the leader Agamemnon threatened to give victory to the Trojans, until Patroclus, Achilles' best friend, who was wearing Achilles' armour, was killed by Hector. Achilles returned to battle in a blazing temper and killed Hector, insulting his body by dragging it three times round the walls of Troy tied behind his chariot. But when Priam came to Achilles' tent to beg for the body, Achilles, remembering his own aged father in Greece, granted his request (this is the last scene of the Iliad). Achilles was invulnerable except for his heel (which his mother the sea-nymph Thetis had held as she dipped her baby into the river Styx). Shortly before the fall of Troy Achilles (who had said he would prefer to die young, but famous) was killed, shot in the heel by Priam's son Paris.

Agamemnon was the commander-in-chief of the Greek forces, although his leadership, rather like that of Jupiter on a higher plane, was often challenged: most famously by Achilles, who refused to continue fighting as a result of a quarrel over a woman. He was married to Helen's sister Clytemnestra, and they had three children. The eldest- Iphigeneia - was sacrificed by her father to secure a fair wind for Troy. In revenge for this Clytemnestra and her lover murdered Agamemnon on his return home from Troy. Electra and Orestes, the other two children, avenged their father's murder by killing their mother.

Apollo's oracle was at Delphi in Central Greece. Oracles were consulted in the ancient world whenever an important decision had to be made. Apollo's oracle was the most famous and most trusted: Sinon refers to it to make his lies more convincing.

Calchas: the "official" prophet to the Greek army at Troy. Very much under the thumb of Ulysses, who had also used him to undermine Agamemnon's authority over the sacrifice of Iphigeneia.

Cassandra, one of the daughters of Priam and Hecuba, refused to give herself to Apollo. He punished her by giving her the gift of prophecy, but no one would ever believe her. Thus she foretold the sack of Troy, and foresaw her own death and that of Agamemnon, who had taken her back to Mycene as his concubine. They were both murdered by Agamemnon's wife, Clytemnestra.See also Coroebus.

Diomedes: a powerful Greek warrior. In the Iliad, he was not afraid of wounding the gods Mars and Venus when they entered the battle on the Trojan side.

Dorian: yet another name for "Greek". Strictly the Dorians, who included the Spartans, were one of the three races of Greeks, and the last one to settle in Greece proper, which they probably did some centuries after the Trojan War. The Ionian and Aeolian Greeks were already there when the Dorians arrived. But Virgil is a poet and not an anthropologist! (And the Romans would associate Dorian with the still warlike Spartans of their own day)

Epeos: Ulysses had the idea for the Wooden Horse, but Epeos was the man who actually designed and built it.

Eurypylus: just the name of a Greek!

Helen: Daughter of Tyndareus (or sometimes Jupiter) and sister of Clytemnestra(who married Agamemnon) In Trojan eyes the evil cause of the War : in Homer she is as beautiful in her character as she is to look at (and she can't stand Paris) - but Virgil follows the tradition of Greek tragedy which paints her as an evil woman

Iphigeneia : In order to get a wind to sail from Greece towards Troy, the Greeks demanded the sacrifice of Iphigeneia, eldest daughter of Agamemnon, the commander of the army. He put his job before his family, and agreed. Her mother Clytemnestra never forgave Agamemnon, and she murdered him when he returned from Troy.

Machaon: In the Iliad he is the doctor to the Greek army - he operated on Menelaus when he was shot by Pandarus.

Menelaus Brother of Agamemnon : together they are called the Atridae - the sons of Atreus. He is a not very clearly characterised in the Aeneid. In Greek tragedy, he is usually tough, uncompromising and brutal.

The
Myrmidons were the troops of the Greek warrior Achilles.

Neoptolemus, also called Pyrrhus, was the youngest and most savage of the surviving Greek warriors. Aeneas witnesses his callous murder of the courageous old king Priam who has taken refuge at the holy altar. His behaviour is contrasted with that of his father Achilles, who at least had the humanity to allow Priam to reclaim the body of his arch-enemy Hector. But the incident serves to remind Aeneas of his own father Anchises, and he goes at once to rescue him. He was the son of Achilles, and grandson of Peleus. The three generations of this family were all heavily involved in the Trojan story. It was at the marriage of grandfather Peleus to the beautiful sea-nymph Thetis where the first act of the drama took place. Jupiter had fancied Thetis for himself, but had backed off when warned that if he married her, their son would be mightier than his father. Accordingly he arranged for her to marry the harmless mortal Peleus, and all the immortals were invited to the party - except one. Unfortunately they didn't include Eris (Strife), but she gatecrashed, and caused havoc by throwing among the revelling goddesses a golden apple, marked "for the fairest". The three most powerful of them each claimed it, but Jupiter said they should be judged on their beauty by a mortal - Paris, the son of king Priam.

Phoenix was A Greek who, after being thrown out of his home after a quarrel with his father was taken in by Peleus. He acted as a sort of tutor to Achilles, and went with him to Troy.

Sinon: he claimed to have been victimised by Ulysses for being an associate of Palamedes, a rival of his whom he had had executed. Notice how Sinon continually exploits the Trojan hatred of Ulysses.

Ulysses (Ulixes in the Latin) is the same as the Greek Odysseus. Odysseus is of course the wily and resourceful hero of Homer's Odyssey. There he is a brilliantly successful trickster and the reader is expected to admire him. In Virgil, however, he is very much a villain, the evil genius behind the Greek victory (although Aeneas' wanderings after the fall of Troy mirror his and are very much based on the Odyssey). He was responsible for the idea of the wooden horse (the actual builder was Epeos) and Sinon as you will see trades on the Trojan hatred for Ulysses. He is also called "the Ithacan" from his homeland, the island of Ithaca off the west coast of Greece (near Corfu)

Trojans
Aeneas, the hero of the story, has escaped the ruin of Troy, and after many experiences , been shipwrecked on the coast of North Africa, in what is now Tunisia. He found there a new city being built, Carthage, and its young and beautiful queen, Dido, on discovering that Aeneas and his companions were refugees from Troy (even in North Africa they've heard of the story), has invited them to dine. After the meal she has asked Aeneas to tell her the whole saga. Aeneas was the son of the goddess Venus, and the Trojan Anchises. His wife, Creusa, was the daughter of King Priam, and they had a son, who is called both Iulus and Ascanius. After Creusa's death during the flight from Troy, Aeneas eventually married Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus, ruler of the Italians. She had been betrothed to the local prince Turnus, and the struggle between him and Aeneas for the hand of Lavinia is fully developed in Book XII. The image of Aeneas carrying his aged father from the smoking ruins of Troy is very important. Aeneas has depended on his father, and even after his death (end of Book III) still needed to consult him in order to understand his divine mission. Hence Aeneas' visit to the Underworld in Book VI, where Anchises shows him the future greatness of Rome to inspire him through the hardships he has to face even after he finally reaches Italy.

Ascanius is Iulus' other name: Anchises is Aeneas' father. They represent the past and the future. The continuity between Troy and the new city which will some day be founded ( Aeneas himself knows nothing about it yet) will be provided by the Penates. These are the sacred objects representing the "household gods" of Troy, responsible for its safety and protection. As the city is now beyond saving (even the gods are joining in the destruction) the Penates must be rescued and taken to a new home. (Eventually of course to Rome)

Capys A Trojan - with the right idea about the Horse. He went all the way with Aeneas and was supposedly the founder of Capua in Italy.

Deiphobus
Son of Priam, brother of Hector. He became Helen's third husband after the death of Paris - Menelaus singles him out for especially brutal treatment therefore when he catches up with him. Aeneas hardly recognises his obscenely mutilated body when he meets him in the Underworld in Book 6.

Laocoön: a Trojan, priest of Neptune.

Paris was partly responsible for the whole Trojan War. While working as a shepherd on Mount Ida outside Troy, the goddesses Juno, Minerva and Venus asked him to be the judge for their beauty-contest. Juno and Minerva offered as inducements power and wisdom respectively, but Venus' bribe was the most beautiful woman in the world for his own. He duly gave Venus the prize (the golden apple), and turned Juno and Minerva irrevocably against Troy. His reward was Helen, already married, unfortunately, to Agamemnon's brother Menelaus. He went to Greece to claim her, and carried her off. The Greek chieftains had all vowed to stand by Helen's husband (because they'd all wanted her but she chose Menelaus), and so the expedition to Troy was mounted to get her back.

Priam was the king of Troy, and father of many of the Trojan princes and princesses, especially Hector, Paris and Cassandra. He was married to Hecuba, and they supposedly had fifty sons and fifty daughters. All were killed in the sack of Troy, apart from Cassandra .

Ucalegon : Aeneas' next door neighbor.

Thymoetes: just the name of a Trojan - no one special.

Other
Coroebus had come recently to Troy, in order to marry Cassandra

Dido had to leave her homeland of Phoenicia and her city of Tyre when her husband Sychaeus was brutally murdered by her brother Pygmalion. Arriving in North Africa the local ruler granted her and her followers as much land as could be covered by an ox-hide: by cutting it into fine strips, she won enough land to build the city of Carthage. Carthage was still incomplete when Aeneas arrived. She immediately, assisted by Juno and Venus, fell in love with him as he told his story. Aeneas stayed on, and gave Dido to believe that they had entered into a form of marriage. But Jupiter was displeased that his plans for Aeneas were being thwarted, and sent Mercury to tell Aeneas to pack up and leave. Ignoring Dido's pleas, Aeneas sailed away, and Dido climbed on to the funeral pyre and stabbed herself. In Book VI they meet again, but Dido's ghost turns away without speaking to Aeneas, and rejoins her former husband Sychaeus.
The home of Menelaus, Agamemnon's brother. It was from here that Paris abducted Menelaus's wife, Helen, and took her back with him to Troy. In historical times, Sparta was a leading city of Greece, famous for her dedication to war. Despite her victory over Athens in the 5th century B.C., Sparta's supremacy did not last.Capital city of modern Greece with a population of over 8,000,000. It was not an important place at the time of the Trojan War, but in the 5th century B.C. Athens became the leading city of mainland Greece, celebrated for its art, literature, drama and philosophy.

Panthus A priest of Apollo, who was the second person to tell Aeneas to leave Troy and escape (the first was the ghost of Hector who appeared in a dream). Aeneas takes no notice of him either.

Gods
Juno (Greek Hera), Jupiter's sister and wife, queen of the immortals, was the most uncompromising of all the gods in hatred of the Trojans (because of the Judgment of Paris). She persecutes Aeneas throughout the Aeneid, responsible for the tragedy of Dido (Book IV) and also for Turnus, the Italian hero whom Aeneas has to defeat when he reaches the "promised land".

Jupiter was the acknowledged king and leader of the gods. However, he was not all-powerful, and lesser gods could (and did) frequently defy him. In the Aeneid he has a very important role. He has a long-term plan for the universe in which he has selected Aeneas as a key performer - although Aeneas doesn't know it yet, and will not really understand the part he's been chosen to play until he has visited the Underworld (in Book VI). The plan involves the destruction of Troy (and so ultimately all attempts to save it are futile) and the escape of Aeneas and his son Iulus, who are destined eventually to reach Italy. There Aeneas's descendants through his Italian wife Lavinia will found Rome, while Iulus's descendants (to be called Iulii after him) will ultimately give rise to Iulius Caesar and his (adopted) son Augustus. Augustus is to be Jupiter's instrument for finally bringing order and peace to the world. Virgil is of couse writing during Augustus' reign, and the story apparently justifies the special monarchic powers that Augustus has been given.

Neptune (Greek Poseidon) : brother of Jupiter and god of the sea. He was a co-founder of Troy, with Apollo, and a staunch supporter of the Trojans. But here, as you will soon see, he is outgunned by Minerva.

Pallas was one of the names of the goddess Athena, in full Pallas Athena. The Romans usually called her Minerva. She was the daughter of Jupiter, from whose head she was supposed to have sprung fully armed. She was the goddess of wisdom and war, as well as patroness of Athens. She supported the Greeks against Troy, and her special favourite was Ulysses. In art she is normally portrayed in full armour with helmet, sword and shield.

Venus : Mother of Aeneas, but also the goddess of Love and Desire. She had been awarded the golden apple by Paris, and was thus, unlike Minerva and Juno, a staunch supporter of the Trojans. She was also the mother of Cupid (Greek Eros) by her husband Mars (Ares).

Jupiter (Zeus) The sky, thunder, king of the gods
Juno (Hera) Queen of the gods
Minerva (Athena) Wisdom - "The Warrior Maid"
Apollo The sun, music, the arts, prophecy
Mercury (Hermes) The messenger, luck, streets, thieves, guide of the dead
Ceres (Demeter) Agriculture
Dis (Pluto / Hades) The underworld
Neptune (Poseidon) The Sea, earthquakes, horses
Vulcan (Hephaestus) "The Lame Smith"
Diana (Artemis) "The Virgin Huntress"
Mars (Ares) War
Venus (Aphrodite) Love

Places
Carthage: The city founded by Dido, it is precious to Minerva but destined to be destroyed by those of Trojan blood

Hesperia means "the land of the evening" - that is the west. The western land in question turned out to be Italy, although Aeneas has no inkling of this as yet.

Ida: the mountain near Troy. The scene of the Judgment of Paris.

One of the cities of Greece:
Mycene or Mycenae belonged to the acknowledged leader of the Greek contingent, Agamemnon. Mycene was excavated in the 19th century by the German archaeologist Schliemann. Although the city of Argos is distinct and some miles away, Virgil often confuses them, and the name "Argives" (men of Argos) is also used as a general term for Greeks. (compare "Danaans")

Olympus: the highest mountain in Greece. It is usually snow-capped, even in summer, and the summit is frequently shrouded in mist. It was the obvious choice for the home of the main Greek gods (the twelve Olympians). The ruler is of course Jupiter (Zeus in Greek).

Scyros - an island midway bbetween Greece and Troy where Neoptolemus grew up. Achilles had been sent there by his mother, who wanted him to dodge the draft when the heroes were being called up for Troy - improbably he was dressed as a girl, and lived among the king's daughters - unsurprisingly, after Achilles disguise was rumbled by Ulysses, one of the maidens found herself pregnant - and gave birth to Neoptolemus some months later. .

Sigeum A town on the actual strait between Europe and Asia.

The city of
Troy stood near the entrance to the Black Sea, in the North-western corner of what is now Turkey. Its fabulous wealth must have come from its position. The Hellespont would have been too difficult to sail up for ships going into the Black Sea, and the Trojans would have charged to carry ships and cargo overland. Neither Homer nor Virgil are interested in such sordid economics, however, and preferred a more colorful explanation for the Trojan War

Things
Auster is the South Wind.

The dramatic
death of Laocoon and his two sons is the subject of a famous ancient Greek sculpture, known from a Roman copy in the Vatican Museum. Virgils' zoologically improbable sea-snakes exhibit every possible feature of snakes, both real and imagined. In fact sea-snakes (possibly the most abundant reptile on earth) are confined to the warm water of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. They are highly poisonous, but swim - like all snakes - with transverse movements. Interestingly they can tie themselves in knots. This passage may be the origin of the "Loch Ness Monster" type of sea-monster which swims with "humps"!

Lie of Sinon:
The convincing lie that Sinon has just told explained how Minerva had ordered the Greeks to build the wooden horse to make amends for the desecration of her sacred image, the Palladium. The Palladium, so he said, would have protected Troy as long as it remained inside Troy: so Ulysses and Diomedes stole it, but spoiled the whole operation by killing some guards and touching the sacred statue with blood still on their hands. They now had to leave the wooden horse and return to Greece, in order to begin the whole expedition afresh. The horse had been deliberately made too big to pass through the gate into Troy, because if the Trojans damaged it their city would be destroyed: while if it were brought into the city intact, Troy would be strong enough to attack the Greeks in their homeland. Note that Sinon could hardly have used Minerva's name to back up his lies unless she was in fact supporting him.

Penates: house-hold gods of Troy which Aeneas takes with him. They were given to Aeneas by Hector in his dream

Lucifer: the morning star. ("Bringer of Light")

Snakes - a recurrent motif in the book : the two sea-snakes kill Laocoön; Androgeos is like a man who stepped on a snake, and Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) is compared to a snake who's just sloughed its skin.

Tenedos:
an island off the coast of Troy where the Greeks hid, pretending to have sailed all the way back home to Greece.

The Winds
Zephyrus is the West wind (usually balmy and gentle - but not this time), Notus is a South Wind (compare Auster) and Eurus is the East

Sunday, February 25, 2007

Thursday, February 22, 2007

Quiz- Book II: Lines 25-34 (Because Tyler Had A Good Idea But Not a Literal Translation)



So basically, here is a literal translation (plus other things) for our Friday (Feb 23) QUIZ!

25 We (Aeneas and his men...Aeneas is still talking) thought they (the Greeks) had departed and went to Mycenas (Greece) by the wind.
26 Therefore, all of Teucria (Troy) loosened itself from its long grief;
27 the gates had been loosened (aka opened), and it is pleasant to go out and to see the Greek camp,
28 the deserted place, and the abandoned shore:
29 here was the hand of the Dolopes (the Greeks), here fierce Achilles was holding;
30 here was the place for the fleet, here they were accustomed to fight in a battle line (an army).
31 Part stood agape at the deadly gift of virgin (unwedded) Minerva
32 and they are amazed by the size of the horse; first Thyometes
33 urges that (the Trojan horse) be lead inside the walls and that it be placed on the citadel,
34 whether by a trick or whether the fates of Troy were heading.

Notes on some of the lines:
25: objects of rati = abiisse and petiisse; Mycenae = direct object of petisse; nos = subject, referring to Aeneas and his men
26: omnis goes w/ Teucria (Troy), meaning all of Troy; longo describes luctu; se = object of soluit, omnis = subject
27: portae = subject of panduntur (nom); iuvat = it is pleasant, takes objects ire and videre; videre takes 3 objects- castra, locos, litus(que); NOTE the use of the tricolon (hic, hic, hic)
28: desertos(que) describes the locos, relictum describes the litus(que)
29: the Dolopes refer to the Greeks of Thessaley; add an est in with every hic clause to make things make more sense; Achilles = subject of tenebat
30: classibus = dative; acies = ablative (despite translation); solebant's object is certare
31: pars = subject of stupet (nom); stupet's object is donum (exitiale describes the donum); innuptae modifies Minervae, both are genitive
32: subject of mirantur is the understood Greeks; the equi refers to the Trojan horse; Thyometes = subject of hortatur
33: muros = acc.; arce = ablative; hortatur takes 2 objects: locari, duci
34: dolo = abl.; Troiae = gen; fata = subject of ferebant

Made by Mia with much input from Karen :D

Good luck on the quiz!

Oh, and for Dr. O (and Tyler too)...AENEAS WILLIAMS!!!

Monday, February 19, 2007

Vergil Journal 4: Impressions of Carthage

Bryn Kass Vergil Journal Tuesday, February 19

Aeneas' response to Carthage... (forgive any spelling errors please)
Upon arriving in Dido's city, Aeneas immediately notices and is in awe of the amazing productivity and construction. Vergil illustrates magnificent buildings and huge shining gates. At the same time, society itself is being formed: "laws were being enacted". One may also notice that, not only is this city built for industrial and economic use, it will also be home to theatres and various forms of entertainment. Aeneas compares the working people of Carthage to bees and their hive. They are busy and focused, and "they" are only the most steadfast to their specific duties.
When he comes to the temple built for Juno, it is clear that the people of Carthage are very proud of and loyal to Juno. He observes the building in an awesome magnificence, noticing its bronze steps and doors. And for some reason, it is here that Aeneas is at peace for the first time. The great walls of the temple bring him comfort and security. Is Juno watching over him? He is able to appreciate the toil of the workers of Carthage.
One question stands in my mind throughout Vergil's narrative; where are the women? If Carthage IS a society, if it IS built for the people, for living and eating and entertaining, where is the second half of the population. Aeneas does not notice or speak of women until he sees Dido. Does this have some significance, or is it just coincidence? Maybe this emphasizes the strength of Carthage and the fact that (and I hate to say this) only the strongest were able to make progress on the city itself

Sunday, February 18, 2007

Posting Vergil Journals

Since Mr. O'Donnell suggested that we post our Journals on the blog, I thought I'd explain how you can do it.

You can simply post your jounrals as "Comments" on a journal. A Vergil Journal #4 will be posted tomorrow, so you can add yours as a comment then.

(NOTE: the becoming an "author" idea failed due to site restrictions. I was able to upload one extra author before the site tried eliminating people. Sorry Bryn! So in this case comments can be posts now - Mr. O'D will read your journal if it is attacted as a comment. In fact in this way all journals for a week show up together)

I've changed the settings on the blog so now ANYONE can post without making account (just trying to make your life a little easier). Because of this, make sure that your name/identity is clear when posting the journals (Mr. O'D needs to know who you are!).
Happy Posting!

P.S. Latin podcast may be on its way! ^_^

P.P.S. Happy Chinese New Year! (year of the piglet.. aka boar)

Wednesday, February 14, 2007

Amor Vincit Omnia: Love in the Aeneid (In Honor of V-Day)

Longing, infatuation, desire, and love have proven to be deeply embedded in the human character. What makes it all interesting, however, is the fact that love itself has a wide variety of intended meanings- for example: Romantic love (a deep, ineffable feeling of attraction- mostly intimate), Platonic love (affectionate without the physical aspect...Plato's ideal of love!), Religious love (for Him), Familial love (for your family, of course), Selflessness, Friendship, etc. The diverse range of meanings in the concept of "love" reflects its depth, versatility, and complexity. The best part, though, is that love, in its plethora of forms, makes frequent appearances in the context of Virgil's Aeneid! So...let's take a look at two of our main lovers in the story- how their decisions affect their infatuation, and (while partually ruining what we have of the plot up until the end of Book 1).

Aeneas and Love: Choices and Consequences

As a Trojan leader, Aeneas respects prophecy and attempts to incorporate the idea of his own destiny into his actions throughout the story. However, as we have first seen him, Aeneas is filled with conflicting emotions. One part of him is still grieving for his lost city and all the friends and family who died there (like in Bk. 1, line 470 when he is crying as he looks at the artwork depicting the Trojan War). Another part of him is worn out with troubles and worries about whether or not he will ever find a place where his people can settle (as we know, Juno, described as a "force of disorder", is not very happy with Aeneas, and will be looking to bring about the downfall of both Aeneas and the Trojan race). We as readers see that Aeneas has the capacity to hold strong, in spite of emotional impulses that conflict with his fated duties. Yet, we will undoubtedly see Aeneas fall as a result of his desires (nobody, not even characters in novels, are perfect), and be led astray on his path to fate. His compassion for the sufferings of others, even in conjunction with a single-minded devotion to his duty (piety comes into play again), will be a major factor in both Aeneas' decisions, as well as the outcome of the story. Plus, we are nearly upon the description of perhaps the most important the relationship of the journey: that between Dido and Aeneas! <3

Dido Unveiled: From Infatuation to Personal Destruction (SPOILER WARNING)


From what we know of Dido thus far, she is the confident and competent ruler of Carthage, a city she founded on the coast of North Africa. She is resolute, we learn, in her determination not to marry again and to preserve the memory of her dead husband, Sychaeus, whose murder at the hands of Pygmalion, her brother, caused her to flee her native Tyre. Despite this turmoil, she maintains her focus on her political responsibilities. Virgil depicts the suddenness of the change that love provokes in the queen with the image of Dido as the victim of Cupid’s arrow (in the upcoming lines with which we will end Book 1), which strikes her almost like madness or a disease. Dido tells her sister that a flame has been reignited within her. While flames and fire are traditional, almost clichéd images associated with love, fire is also a natural force of destruction and uncontrollable chaos. Dido risks everything by falling for Aeneas, and when this love fails, she finds herself unable to reassume her dignified position. By taking Aeneas as a lover, she compromises her previously untainted loyalty to her dead husband’s memory. Her irrational obsession drives her to a frenzied suicide, out of the tragedy of her situation and the pain of lost love, but also out of a sense of diminished possibilities for the future. She is a figure of passion and volatility, qualities that contrast with Aeneas’s order and control, and interestingly, traits that Virgil associated with Rome itself in his own day. However, until the story of Aeneas and Dido unfolds for us, we must realize that love plays a key role not only in Dido's death, but also in Aeneas' final decision to leave Dido (specifically, his love for the Trojans and his desire to find them a place of rest).



In ending this sequence about love, we must recall one of the most famous Latin proverbs, attributed to our one and only Virgil (written in his Eclogues- 10:69):

amor vincit omnia, et nos cedamus amori
Translation: Love conquers all, let us too yield to love.

In a sense, love will always remain "in medias omnia res" among the characters in the Aeneid, and perhaps in our own everyday lives.



Sources Include:

1. Wikipedia
2. Loeb Edition
3. Pinkmonkey
4. Sparknotes
4. Virgil's Aeneid (by Barbara Weiden Boyd)
5. Google Images

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

Poetry Device of the Day: Tricolon Crescens

For those of you who were curious about the TRICOLON CRESCENS we talked about in class, here is a little more Info on it:

TRICOLON CRESCENS
an ascending tricolon – a combination of three elements increasing in size.

Non ferar, non patiar, non tolerabo. (anonymous)

Est vidisse satis; laudat digitosque manusque
Bracchiaque et nudos media plus parte lacertos. – Ovid Met. I.500-1

(http://www.frapanthers.com/teachers/white/literary_devices.htm#Tricolon)
^This website also contains lots of helpful information on other literary devices. I added the link to the Interesting Websites as “Latin Literary Devices”.

The key to a tricolon crescens, or ascending tricolon, is that each thing is increasing with magnitude. In the Ovid example above, we see how he goes from fingers, to hands, to arms, to shoulders. Mr. O’Donnell’s example of “I hate your school, I hate you, I hate your parents” displays the increasing magnitude of hate. Hating your school is not as direct or intense as hating you, and according to Mr. O’D not as severe as having your parents hated (some of us may dispute this order of magnitude). Overall though, we can recognize a tricolon crescens if a list of 3 things appear in increasing size/magnitude/intensity. This is just one more poetic device you can add to your bag of witty stuff to pull out on the AP :).

Monday, February 12, 2007

Virgil Journal 3: Aeneas' Pietas



The character and legend of Aeneas, which was first established in Homer’s Illiad, reappears in Virgil’s Aenied. Virgil drew Aeneas’ future role as the ancestor of the Romans from Achilleus’ rampage in the Illiad. In this scene, Aeneas, encouraged by Apollo, challenges Achilleus to a battle. During the battle Poseidon says:

“But why does this man, who is guiltless, suffer his sorrows
for no reason, for the sake of others’ unhappiness, and always
he gives gifts that please them to the gods who hold the wide heaven.
But come, let us ourselves get him away from death, for fear
the son of Kronos may be angered if now Achilleus
kills this man. It is destined that he shall be the survivor,
that the generation of Dardanos shall not die, without seed
obliterated, since Dardanos was dearest to Kronides
of all his sons that have been born to him from mortal women.
For Kronos’ son has cursed the generation of Priam,
and now the might of Aineias shall be lord over the Trojans,
and his sons’ sons, and those who are born of their seed hereafter. (20.297-308)”

This passage sets the basis for Virgil’s Aenied. It is evident Aeneas was destined to survive at Troy and will one day lead over its decedents. While researching I also found an interesting connection to why Virgil chose Aeneas as the founder of the Roman race:
“As the Romans came into contact - and conflict - with the Greeks in the third and second centuries B.C., they sought to link themselves with Greek legends, and gradually adopted Aeneas - an enemy of the Greeks - as an ancestor and a founder of a city, Lavinium, that was a precursor of Rome itself. In the Aeneid, Virgil elaborated upon these legends, reworked some of them, and organized them into a grand epic that stressed Aeneas’ role as the ancestor of the Roman people and linked his personal destiny with the historical destiny of Rome to become the seat of a great empire. At its core, though, is the hero whom Homer destined for survival in the Iliad (Virgil’s Aeneid: Introduction).”

The piety of Aeneas, attributed to him by Poseidon in the Illiad, develops into a defining characteristic throughout the Aenied. I also noted, that Virgil used the words of Poseidon as his own starting point for the Aenied. In the Illiad, Aeneas is described as a “guiltless” man who must “suffer his sorrows for no reason”. Similarly, Virgil begins the Aenied by saying, “Tell me, O Muse, the cause; wherein thwarted in will or wherefore angered, did the Queen of heaven drive a man, of goodness so wondrous, to traverse so many perils, to face to many toils.”

It is in these lines we are first introduced to Aeneas, described as a man of insignem pietate (Aenied 1.10). Later, I noticed that Aeneas introduces himself to the huntress by declaring, “I am the loyal/pious Aeneas” (“sum pius Aeneas”, Aenied 1.378). It appears as if Virgil uses Aeneas to portray the Roman hero, displaying the qualities of pietas and duty. He is a good man who is forced to suffer at the hands of a larger divine plan. Roman pietas consisted of three main duties: duty towards the Gods, duty towards country, and duty towards family/followers (Wikipedia). It is already evident that Aeneas has submitted himself to the will of the gods. From Jupiter’s prophecy we learn that Aeneas will rage a great war in Italy, crush proud nations, establish Latium, and found the Roman race. Reading ahead, I know that Aeneas’ pietas will cause him to leave Dido in order to continue to fulfill his destiny. This example provides evidence of his duty of country and the gods, but not to his family.

Curious, I decided to search the Internet for a peek ahead. From my research I learned that Virgil greatly explores the relationship between fathers and sons as the poem continues. Apparently, Aeneas had rescued his father, Anchises, and son, Ascanius, from Troy. The image of him departing with Ascanius, while carrying the Trojan ancestral gods in his arms and his father on his back, is the epitome of the three duties associated with pietas.

On a side note, I also found that many scholars believe Aeneas’s piety was a direct attempt by Augustus to establish himself as a pious ruler. Virgil had been commissioned by Augustus to write the Aenied. This would explain his obvious flattery of the Roman’s and the rulers during Jupiter’s speech. As Mr. O’Donnell put it, “he was sucking up to his commissioner.” Virgil may have in way alluded to Augustus through Aeneas. It heavily suggested that gods “work their ways” through humans. The people of Rome must accept their fate, just as Aeneas accepted his fate to found Rome, and Augustus’ fate to lead it. In a way, this gave Augustus an unquestionable god given power.

From what little we have already seen of the Aenied, and the additional information I have learned online, I can tell pietas will be a resounding theme. Its obvious importance will make it a likely AP question (2005 AP asked about it), so make sure to keep your eyes peeled for more supporting evidence!


Sources
1. http://vergil.classics.upenn.edu/comm2/legend/legend.html#pius
2. http://www.answers.com/topic/aeneid
3. Wikipedia
4. http://shell.cas.usf.edu/~demilio/2211unit3/vrglcint.htm
5. Loeb Translation